Reading (3 hours):
- Vermeiren, Guy LJ, Manu LNG Malbrain, and Jeroen MJB Walpot. “Cardiac Ultrasonography in the critical care setting: a practical approach to asses cardiac function and preload for the “non-cardiologist.” Anaesthesiology intensive therapy (2014): 89-104.
- Stawicki, S. Peter, et al. “Intensivist use of hand-carried ultrasonography to measure IVC collapsibility in estimating intravascular volume status: correlations with CVP.” Journal of the American College of Surgeons 209.1 (2009): 55-61.
- Blaivas, Michael, and John Christian Fox. “Outcome in cardiac arrest patients found to have cardiac standstill on the bedside emergency department echocardiogram.” Academic Emergency Medicine 8.6 (2001): 616-621.
In order to continue with the module, please complete the following:
1. (From Vermeiren Article): A quick method to estimate left ventricle ejection fraction is to measure ______ movement of the mitral annulus ring.
2. (From Stawicki Article): Mean central venous pressure values were ______proportional to the inferior vena cava collapsibility index.
3. (From Blaivas Article): Patients presenting with cardiac _____ on bedside echocardiogram do not survive to leave the ED regardless of their electrical rhythms and may be an additional marker for cessation of emergency ultrasonography.