Penny S. Reynolds, PhD

Penny ReynoldsAssistant Professor

Contact Information

University of Florida
College of Medicine
Department of Anesthesiology
1600 SW Archer Road
PO Box 100254
Gainesville, Florida 32610-0254

Office Phone:

(352) 273-6575


Dr. Reynolds joins us as an Assistant Professor and comes to us from Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine in Richmond, Virginia; where she worked as an Assistant Professor in Anesthesiology, and project leader on a Department of Defense (DoD) funded project. Dr. Reynolds earned a Bachelor of Science in Wildlife Biology as well as a Master of Science in Zoology at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. She also received a Master of Science in Biometry and a Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology and Statistics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin. As a DoD project leader she investigated the effects of high-dose vitamin C and its potential to reduce acute coagulopathy of trauma in a swine model of traumatic injury and hemorrhagic shock. She holds extensive quantitative experience in statistical experimental design, modeling, and analyses. Dr. Reynolds has published a number of papers, conference presentations and abstracts. She has also acted as a consultant to numerous clinical faculty members in Emergency Medicine, Anesthesiology, and Trauma Surgery.



1992 PhD, Zoology, Statistics University of Wisconsin Madison, WI
1989 MS, Biometry University of Wisconsin Madison, WI
1982 MS, Zoology University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada
1977 BS, Wildlife Biology University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada


Research Interests

  1. Fluid resuscitation strategies for hemorrhagic shock Field fluid resuscitation strategies are an attempt to keep a very sick patient alive until he or she can get to definitive treatment, and to minimize the likelihood of multiple organ failure in survivors. However current therapies are based primarily on custom or convenience (e.g. minimizing weight carried by medics, conservation of fluid resources in austere/tactical environments), with little attention to physiology. Much of my research has been directed to understanding implications of blood, blood products, and low-volume resuscitation agents for mortality and morbidity in trauma.
  2. Experimental design principles applied to preclinical shock-resuscitation research Systematic biases and deficiencies in study design and analyses are common in animal research, and can greatly distort estimates of the effect of an intervention, resulting in studies that are biased and potentially misleading. Sample size specification and justification is both an ethical and statistical issue. Reforming the reporting of experimental design and statistical analyses is difficult, as reporting omissions most likely occur because of insufficient statistical training of many investigators, and failure to implement appropriate methods early in the experimental process. My research is characterized by sophisticated statistical experimental designs that improve translational interpretation and reliability.
  3. Application of advanced statistical models to biomarker identification. Although single biochemical markers are used to assess patient response to injury and resuscitation, they are unsatisfactory and unreliable as there is usually little or no association with the observed stages of shock & resuscitation. My work shows how physiological conditions may be modelled more appropriately by nonlinear & multivariate statistical models constructed from physiological data, and analyzed by a variety of techniques, including nonlinear mixed models, pattern recognition, neural networks, and optimization methods
  4. Improving the quality of animal-based research Animal models are crucial to understanding the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and for testing potential therapeutics. However they are frequently characterized by irrelevant outcomes and inappropriate, biased, and/or unusable design and methods. The result is substantial collateral damage on either end of the research pipeline: hundreds of millions of animals suffer and are killed needlessly, and thousands of humans are injured or die because of clinical interventions based on misleading preclinical data. I submit that model quality and performance could be improved substantially by Reynolds | 4 applying statistical principles of process improvement QI strategies. I illustrate in recent presentations and papers how simple quality control methods can be deployed in the development of novel, clinically relevant animal models for shock research, and ensure its scientific and ethical integrity.


  • “Best of the best” Oral Presentations. American Heart Association-Resuscitation Science Symposium (ReSS) for Physiological Response Space: Mapping resuscitation response in a swine model of traumatic shock. Chicago IL November 2010.
  • VCU Center for Teaching Excellence Small Grants Award for Promoting clinical statistics literacy of Emergency Medicine residents by technology-enhanced formative assessment strategies. 2009
  • Best Technical Publication, Rocky Mountain Research Institute, 2002 for Watson, A. E.; Cole, D. N.; Turner, D. L.; Reynolds, P. S. 2000. Wilderness recreation use estimation: a handbook of methods and systems. Gen. Tech. Rep.RMRS-GTR-56.
  • Anna M. Jackson Award, American Society of Mammalogists for Time series modelling of mammalian body temperatures. 1991

Selected Publications

  • Reynolds PS, Michael MJ, Cochran ED, Wegelin JA, Spiess BD. Prehospital Use of Plasma in Traumatic Hemorrhage (The PUPTH Trial): Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 16:321 doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0844-5, 2015
  • Roderique JD, Josef CS, Newcomb AH, Reynolds PS, Somera LG, Spiess BD. Preclinical evaluation of injectable reduced hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to acute carbon monoxide poisoning. J Trauma Acute Care Surgery, 79: S116-S120, 2015
  • Reynolds PS, Spiess BD. Hextend-perfluorocarbon cocktail inhibits mean arterial pressure response in a rabbit shock model. J Surgical Research, 2015 Apr 28. pii: S0022-4804(15)00495-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.063.
  • Reynolds PS, Song SK, Tamariz FJ, Barbee RW. Hypertension and vulnerability to hemorrhagic shock in a rat model. Shock, 2015; 43(2): 148-156
  • Wills B, Reynolds P, Chu E, Murphy C, Cumpston K, Stromberg P, Rose R. Clinical outcomes in newer anticonvulsant overdose: A Poison Center observational study. Journal of Medical Toxicology 2014 DOI 10.1007/s13181-014-0384-5
  • Reynolds PS, Barbee RW, Ward KR. Low volume resuscitation with HBOCs in hemorrhagic shock. Chapter 24. In Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: Principles, approaches and current status. Eds. HW Kim, AG Greenberg. Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2013; 746 pp.
  • Cashin Jr. BV, Matlock AG, Kang C, Reynolds PS, Wills BK. Effect of hydroxocobalamin on surface oximetry in non-exposed humans. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013 28(4):367-369
  • Knutson T, Della-Giustina D, Wills B, Tomich E, Leurssen E, Reynolds P. Evaluation of a new noninvasive device in determining hemoglobin levels in emergency department patients. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2013 14(3): 283-286
  • Reynolds PS, P Wall, M van Griensven, K McConnell C Lang, T Buchman. Shock supports the use of animal research reporting guidelines, Shock 38(1): 1-3, 2012.
  • Reynolds PS. How do we promote clinical statistics literacy of emergency medicine residents? Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meetings 2011: 454-461